How the Swedish archive for oceanographic data works

Here, we present information on marine environmental monitoring program areas, program parts and surveys and different datatypes according to the Swedish Agency for Water and Marine Management and SMHI's previous "register page". In the right-hand margin you can find links to SMHI's codelist, other lists such as species lists and HELCOM PEG's lists.

Marine environmental monitoring data coast and sea

SMHI is commissioned by the Swedish Agency for Water and Marine Management to archive and publish data that has been collected in Swedish marine environmental monitoring. See also link to the Swedish EPA web page forkvalitetssystem för samordnad miljöövervakning

Our mission is to perform quality control on data deliveries, archive and make data available to the public. In our mission data products are also made.

Data that is not considered sensitive from a secrecy law perspective is made  according to the CC0 license and is thereby free to use, re-use, distribute and aggregate.

Data users may, but are not required to cite us or anyone else of the data hosts in environmental monitoring. Financier and principal for the marine environmental monitoring is the Swedish Agency for Water and Marine Management.

Program area coast and sea.

Part of programs in the Swedish archive for oceanographic data: The pelagic, soft bottom macrofauna, epibenthos, mammals within the seal and eagle program.

Program area: Oceanography
Program parts Survey Period

National data

The pelagic, trends

Hydrography and nutrients in the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat and Skagerrak 1979-now

Regional data

The pelagic, trends

Hydrography and nutrients in the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat and Skagerrak 1980-now
Program area: Marine biology
Survey Period Contact

Soft bottom macrofauna

Bothnian Bay

1983-now jan.albertsson@umu.se

Soft bottom macrofauna

Baltic Sea Proper

1971-now

jonas.gunnarsson@su.se

stefan.tobiasson@lnu.se

Soft bottom macrofauna

Kattegat and Skagerrak seas

1983-now fredrik.pleijel@marine.gu.se

Epibenthos

Baltic Sea Proper

1993-now susanne.qvarfordt@su.se

Epibenthos

Skagerrak

1993-now jan.karlsson@marine.gu.se

Epipelagic chemistry and biology

Bothnian Bay

1989-now joakim.ahlgren@umu.se

Epipelagic chemistry and biology

Baltic Sea Proper

1982-now jakob.walve@su.se

Epipelagic chemistry and biology

Kattegat and Skagerrak seas

1979-now shark@smhi.se
Grey seal 1989-now olle.karlsson@nrm.se
Harbour seal 1988-now olle.karlsson@nrm.se
Ringed seal 1995-now olle.karlsson@nrm.se
Harbour porpoise 2016-now julia.carlstrom@nrm.se

Investigation types (marine environmental monitoring methods)

A brief summary is displayed below but a more thorough description of methods can be found on the webpage of Swedish Agency for Water and Marine Management (only in Swedish) SwAM:s so-called "undersökningstyper"

Physical and chemical parameters

Water samples are collected with e.g. a Ruttner sampler or CTD rosette at distinct depths from the surface to the bottom. The analyses are performed directly or in the laboratory. Sometimes a measuring probe (CTD; Conductivity, Temperature and Density) is used for  continuous sampling of salinity, temperature, oxygen and occasionally chlorophyll. Seawater transparency is measured using a so-called secchi disc. More information is available in Swedish here: Hydrografi och närsalter, kartering.

Zoobenthos

Sampling is often performed with a sediment grabber such as a Van Veen grabber that collects a known amount of bottom susbtrate. The material is seeved and the organsisms found are preserved for furter taxonomic annotation, counting and weighing. For each species data are presented consisting of the number of counted individuals per sample, the number of counted individuals per area and the total weight of counted individuals per sample and per area. For some organisms only presence is reported. The bottom sediment characteristics is also often reported. More information is available in Swedish here:   Mjukbottenlevande makrofauna, kartering andMjukbottenlevande makrofauna, trend och områdesövervakning.

Epibenthos

Data are usually collected by divers that follow a transect along the bottom of the sea and observes the presence of different species. Observations are either noted on-site or analyzed afterwards from photographies, videos or samples collected by divers or cameras (e.g. a sled mounted camera dragged on the bottom). Depth and position along the transect is often noted. The methods vary tremendously. For each species the following parameters can be presented: number of species in a particular area, total number of species counted, percent cover of the bottom substrate or the species depth distribution. The characteristics of the bottom substrate is also often reported and how large portion of the substrate that has been overlaid with sediment deposition. More information is available in Swedish here: Vegetationsklädda bottnar, ostkust andVegetationsklädda bottnar, västkust.

Zooplankton

Samples are collected by towing a zooplankton net vertically through the water column. The sampled volume is estimated either from a gauge on the zooplankton net or from the net area and length of the tow. The organisms found in the net are preserved for subsequent taxonomic annotation, counting and size classification. Since the number of organisms found in one net tow can be extremely high the sample are sometimes split into parts that are recalculated to represent the entire net tow sample. For each species (and sometimes developmental stage and sex) the number of individuals counted, the number of individuals per water volume and sometimes weight, average and median length are reported. More information is available in Swedish here: Djurplankton, trend- och områdesövervakning.

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton/picoplankton are often sampled by collecting seawater with e.g. a Ruttner sampler or a CTD-rosette that can sample distinct depths or with a hose that are positioned vertically in the water column and closed to collect  a so-called integrated sample. The collected plankton are preserved for subsequent taxonomic annotation, counting and size classification. For each species (and sometimes among different size classes and trophic status according to HELCOM PEGs list) data are presented for number of counted individuals in the sample, number of counted individuals per water volume, weight per water volume and cell volume per water volume. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton are reported and some measurements are focused on picoplankton (e.g. Cyanobacteria). More information is available in Swedish here: Växtplankton.

Bacterioplankton

Seawater is collected with e.g. a Ruttner sampler or a CTD-rosette that can sample distinct depths or with a hose that are positioned vertically in the water column and closed to collect  a so-called integrated sample. The abundance and production (bacterial heterotrophic production) of bacteria is measured. The cell size and biomass of the measured bacteria are also reported. 

Chlorophyll

Seawater can be collected with a hose that is positioned vertically in the water column and closed (integrated sample). Or samples can be collected with in bottles from distinct depths. The seawater is filtered and from fluorescent measurments the chlorophyll levels (e.g. Chl a) are quantified.

Primary production

Primary production is measured with two methods: either in situ where carbon fixation is measured in bottles that are positioned in the water for a few hours or through incubator measuremetns where carbon fixation is measured in a light gradient. The total primary production in the sea is calculated from current light conditions (PAR). More information is available in Swedish here:  Primärproduktion.

Sedimentation

Sedimentation traps are allowed to sit on-site for a number of days up to a month to collect the material that sediment through the water column. The sedimented materials dry weight is measured and the sedimentation speed is calculated. The proportion of different substances that build up the sedimented material is also reported. More information is available in Swedish here: Sedimentation.

Harbour porpoise

The distribution of harbour porpoises are invented using sensors that collect click sounds. The number of counted harbour porpoises per site are estimated from the number of click sounds reported

Seals

The distribution of ringed seals, grey seals and harbour seals are studied from inventories made from airplane or by land observations. The number of counted individuals per site is reported. More information is available in Swedish here: Bestånd av knubbsäl och vikaresäl andGråsälsbestånd.

Seal pathology

Dead seals are autopsied and measurments of their condition is reported. When the exact location of the found seal is unknown the county's city of residency is reported according to the Swedish EPA's guidelines. More information is available in Swedish here: Patologi hos gråsäl, vikaresäl och knubbsäl.