Annual report 2022

Annual report of the Swedish oceanographic monitoring in open seas. Last updated:

Model description of BIOLA - a biogeochemical lake model.


Type: Report
Report Series: RH 16
Author: Charlotta Pers
Published: 2002
Last updated:

Workshop on sea level rise, November 7-8 2019

Workshop on Sea Level Rise; IPCC SROCC Science and Planning for Climate Adaptation. IPCC has released a special report focusing on the ocean and the cryosphere (SROCC). Following the release, SMHI hosted a workshop with the aim of exchanging knowledge on the topic and discussing its implications Last updated:

Sea level

well as causing the sea temperature to increase and thus the seawater to expand. This leads to a global increase in sea level. The UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported in 2007 that the likely increase in sea level from the end of the 1900s to the year 2100 will be 18-59 cm Last updated:

Sea ice

In winter, ice forms on lakes, water courses and the sea. The salt in the sea means that ice can only form when the sea surface temperature is below zero degrees Celsius. The character of the ice varies with the saltiness of the water. For lakes and along the coast of Northern Sweden the ice is Last updated:

Acidification of the sea

All the measurement data from 1993 to 2007, for pH from Swedish sea areas held in SMHI’s SHARK database, have been analysed for trends. These analyses show that the pH has decreased in most sea areas. Analyses were carried out for the Skagerrak, the Kattegat, the southern Baltic Proper, the Last updated:

Sea observations

Sea level SMHI presents sea level measurements from 24 tide gauges (sea level stations). The sea level is measured in a local height system and values are presented relative the theoretical mean sealevel, a level calculated from many years of annual means, which takes into account the effect of Last updated:

The Baltic Sea

  If the Belt and the Sound were closed, the sea level would change by 114 cm due to land drainage, by 58 cm from precipitation and by -48 cm from evaporation, each year, calculated for the whole surface of the Baltic which is 386700 km2. The net gain is 124 cm per year or a rise of about 0.3 cm Last updated:

Oxygen in the sea

more and more species experience problems. When the oxygen is used up, the organic material continues to break down, as bacteria use the sulphates as an oxygen source, producing hydrogen sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide is poisonous to all higher organisms, and high levels lead to dead zones on the sea Last updated:

Annual report 2020

Annual report of the Swedish oceanographic monitoring in open seas. Last updated: