A = A swimming cell; B = A living cell with two chloroplasts; C = A cell in Lugol. All (DIC)
Size: length 11-16 µm, width 9-12 µm.
Note: It is common in estuaries according to Steidinger & Tangen (1996). G. estuariale was common in Gullmarsfjorden and fiord like systems during the summer.
Distinctive features: Right side of hypotheca longer than left. Cingulum displaced about 1X cingulum width. Cell with two to four chloroplasts and sometimes with food particles.
Similar species: Gymnodinium galatheanum
Gardiner, W. E., Rushing, A. E. & Dawes, C. J. 1989. Ultrastructural observations of Gyrodinium estuariale (Dinophyceae) (Note). J. Phycol. 25: 178-183.
Hulburt, E. M. 1957. The taxonomy of unarmored Dinophyceae of shallow embayments on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Biological Bulletin. 112: 196-219.
Steidinger, K. A. & Tangen, K. 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: Tomas, C. R. (ed.) Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, p. 387-584.
Throndsen, J. 1969. Flagellates of Norwegian coastal waters. Nytt Mag. Bot. 16: 161-216.