The aim of this study is to understand the main hazards and their impacts on the resources of the pastoral zone in general and the municipalities of Toumour and Foulatari in particular, and to assess the contribution of the Peace Wells approach towards improving the resilience of pastoral and agropastoral communities to environmental changes.
The Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) method was applied to two clusters – Mandawa and Kirikelzou – totalling 19 villages, through focus group interviews with men and women. A workshop for sharing the results was organised to review the Peace Wells approach, with the aim of making it climate-sensitive. The methodology included a literature review that allowed for the selection of the two clusters, the choice of collection tools, a focus group interview phase with men and women from pastoral and agropastoral communities, and finally the workshop at which additional information was collected. The results showed that climate change is a reality among these communities. It is manifested in the recurrence of extreme phenomena such as insufficient rainfall, epizootic diseases, crop pests and droughts. These hazards affect livestock and agricultural practices, which are highly dependent on the environment. The respondents noted that insufficient rainfall is the hazard with the greatest impact on resources, with a cumulative 37 points out of
123 (30%). This has a very strong impact on pastures, with a score of 11 points, followed by fields and animals, with 9 points each. Next come epizootic diseases and crop pests with 30 points (24.39%) and 29 points (23.57%) respectively.
|Affected resources||Impacts on livelihoods||Consequences||Adaptation strategies in view of impacts|
Lowering of the water table
Drying up of surface water points
Conflicts and tensionsAnimal deaths
Control and collaborative management of resources
Negotiating and sharing resources
Creating water points
Building traditional wellsUsing climate information (SUMO)
Loss of livestock
Decrease in animals’ market valueReduction of livestock
Vaccination and treatment of animals
Lending animals for milk or breeding
Using climate information
Feeding animals with farming residuesTranshumance and internal mobility
|Plant resources (trees and pastures)||
Disappearance of local species with high nutritional value
Appearance of new species without nutritional valueLoss of forests
Proliferation of harmful plant speciesDifficulties using plants with medicinal value for treatment
Negotiating and sharing plant resourcesUsing climate information (SUMO)
One of the innovations of the Peace Wells approach involves constantly seeking consensus through consultation and dialogue between water users. These Peace Wells exchanges led to a social agreement being signed that was accepted by all parties, covering i) the location of the well,
ii) clarification of the site’s land status, iii) the type of well to be built, iv) the communities’ contribution to mobilisation, v) the management committees’ responsibilities, vi) the conditions for access to water, vii) women’s participation, and viii) hygiene and sanitation at the water points.
Good knowledge is required regarding the climate hazards that impact on livelihoods at community level in general and among pastoral communities in particular. It is also necessary to have good knowledge about the adaptation strategies of communities in pastoral areas, and of
the Peace Wells approach and the National Strategy for Pastoral Hydraulics (SNHP).