A&B = Pair of cells attached by their hypothecae; C = Hypotheca; D = Epitheca with slit-like groove (=arrow); E = Part of girdle (=arrowhead). (DIC)
Life-form: Solitary or in pair
Size: Length 32-43 µm, width 43-76 µm.
Resting spore: +
Note: Cells often in pairs and attached by their hypothecae or epitheca against hypotheca (Gaarder 1954)
Distinctive features: Shape and with two intercalary plates
Distribution: North Atlantic
Dodge, J. D. 1982. Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. 303 pp.
Gaarder, K. 1954. Dinoflagellatae from the "Michael Sars" North Atlantic deep-sea expedition 1910. Rep. Sci. Res."Michael Sars" N. Atlant. Deep-sea Exp., 2: 1-62
Gran, H. H. & Braarud, T. 1935. A quantitative study of the phytoplankton in the bay of Fundy and the gulf of Maine (including observations on hydrography, chemistry and turbidity). Canada, Biol. Board Jour. 2(5): 279-467.
Hansen, G. & Larsen, J. 1992. Dinoflagellater i danske farvande. In: Thomsen, H. A. (ed.) Plankton i de indre danske farvande. Havforskning fra Miljøstyrelsen, Copenhagen, p. 45-155.