The results provided by the oceanographic research group are implemented in products that are of use in various areas. It may concern support for rescuing actions or combating oil spills, information to the shipping, or warnings regarding, for example, high/low sea levels and algae blooms. The results may also be used for the planning of activities needed for fulfilling Sweden’s environmental objectives and as decision basis for the water administration. Adaptation to a future climate and mitigation of climate effects are two other areas where the results from our research are of importance.
The Baltic Sea is a sensitive ecosystem. Some of its problems are acidification, eutrophication, hypoxia/anoxia and climate change. With a suite of coupled models describing the physical, chemical and biological processes we address questions on how the marine environment will come to change. The results can in the end be used as a tool to support decision makers.
Ocean and Sea Ice Forecasts
To be able to issue warnings of for example risk of flooding, spreading of oil spills or high seas, a forecast model is needed. A model usually calculate the evolution of ocean parameters; salinity, temperature, currents, waves and sea ice conditions. At SMHI we develop methods and models to make forecasts of regional and local ocean and sea ice conditions up to 10 days a head.
The sea is exposed to environmental changes such as eutrophication, acidification and anoxia. In what way the marine environment will respond to changes in nutrient supply and changes in future climate is an urgent and scientifically challenging task.
The ice season in the Baltic Sea lasts up to 7 month and year-to-year variations of the ice coverage are very large. Since sea ice prevents heat and moisture exchange between ocean and atmosphere, a sea ice component, which is coupled to the regional Baltic Sea models, is essential for ocean modelling.