BIO-C3 – Investigating causes, consequences and management implications

BIO-C3 will investigate causes of changes in biodiversity, emphasizing effects on ecosystem functioning and implications for environmental management.

The Baltic Sea and it’s ecosystem is under constant change as non-indigenous species continue to establish in the Baltic, climate change alters the physical and biogeochemical environment and fishing changes food webs and predation pressure. Thus, while being species poor, human influences are larger than in most other sea regions as this marginal sea is surrounded by densely populated areas.

Role of SMHI

SMHI will contribute with model and observational data for detection of changes in the physical and biogeochemical environment in the past, present and future Baltic Sea. This will include anthropogenic drivers such as climate change and eutrophication.

Of special interest will be changes in salinity, temperature, oxygen and nutrient patterns and cycles, and how deep-water inflows impact nutrient transports within the Baltic Sea.

Project partners

  • Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (coordinating partner)
  • Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, University of Hamburg
  • Thünen Institute for Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock
  • National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark
  • DHI, Hørsholm
  • Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu
  • Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki
  • Åbo Akademi University, Turku
  • Marine Science and Technology Center, Klaipeda University
  • National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia
  • Stockholm University
  • University of Gothenburg
  • Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute


Projects within the BONUS, the joint Baltic Sea Research and Development programme, is funded jointly by the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration and from national funding institutions. SMHI national funding comes from FORMAS.

The project will run 2014-2017.